A lot of debate in astrological books and articles relate to where exactly you locate the relationship between the client and his/her mother and father on a natal chart. In my experience I look for two indicators for each.
With regard to the father I always look to The Sun and to Saturn. The Sun and the sign and house it is tenanted in gives a clue to the character and the aspects that affect it often describe the relationship between client and his father. Saturn if it is retrograde of is a sign that the love between the client as a child and the father was affected in some way. Either he was away for periods of time, was uncaring, unusually strict or outright violent or aggressive in some manner.
The mother is shown quite naturally by the Moon and also by the nodal axis. Again like the Sun, the sign and house it the Moon is located in gives a clue to the character and the aspects it receives describe the relationship and tensions. The nodal axis can be very revealing. Any planet tightly conjunct this axis will show a special bond between the client and the other, the planet involved will show the nature of that bond.
The Midheaven/IC axis will also shed some clues to the Father/Mother relationship. The signs on the cusp of the 4th & 10th houses and the ruling planet associated and their location in the chart & aspects they receive will show how the parents have had an effect on the client.